[Legislation] - [National Program] - [WHO Collaborating Centre] - [WHO Framework Convention]
INCA is the body of the Ministry of Health of Brazil that has coordinated the National Tobacco Control Program since 1989. This program is mainly funded by the Brazilian government.
This Program's main goal is to reduce tobacco consumption, which will consequently lead to the reduction of the prevalence of smokers and, therefore, tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in Brazil.
Its specific objectives are to:
• Reduce smoking initiation, particularly among the youth
• Reduce access to tobacco products
• Protect the Brazilian population against the risks of passive smoking
• Reduce the social barriers that hamper smoking cessation
• Increase the access and affordability to smoking cessation treatments
• Regulate and monitor the tobacco products marketed in the country,
from their contents and emissions to their marketing and promotion strategies
• Monitor the consumption trends, their effects on health, economy and environment,
and tobacco industry's strategies.
Tobacco control measures have been built and consolidated in partnership with the Health Offices and some Education Offices in the Brazilian states and municipalities, other departments of the Ministry of Health and the National Health Surveillance Agency ( ANVISA).
In 2003 , motivated by the FCTC negotiation process, the President of Brazil created the National Commission for the Implementation of the FCTC and its Protocols, a formal governmental forum that convenes the representation of 13 different Ministries: Health; Finance; Agriculture; Agrarian Development; Comuncation; Environment; Education; Justice; Labor; Industry Development and International Trade; Foreign Relations; Science and Technology; and the Civil House. The Minister of Healht is the President of this Commission and INCA is its Executive Secretariat . Its main goal is to build a state agenda for the FCTC implementation in Brazil.
The Tobacco Control Program has achieved important positive results. The smoking prevalence among poplulation over 18 years old dropped from 34,8% in 1989 to 22.4% in 2003, a decrease of approximately 35%. For more details: http://www.fsp.usp.br/nupens/smokers.pdf
Tobacco Control Legislation [up]
WHO Collaborating Centre for Tobacco Control [up]
Due to the efficacy of its Tobacco Control Program INCA was nominated a WHO Collaborating Centre for Tobacco Control in 1996, with the following tasks:
• To strenghten tobacco control in Brazil.
• To collaborate with PAHO- Panamerican Health Organization to ensure effective implementations of the Smoke Free Americas Initiative in Brazil and throughout Latin-America.
• To provide written material to WHO in Portuguese that will help strengthen tobacco control in all Portuguese-speaking (Lusophonic) areas of the world.
• To implement training programs and strategies on tobacco control in Brazil that are consistent with PAH/WHO recommendations. Provide assistance in the implementation of similar programs and strategies throughout Latin-America.
• To provide support for the implementation of comprehensive tobacco legislation in Brazil and throughout Latin-America.
• To collaboratie with WHO in implementing the WHO Tobacco or Health Plan of Action
In 2003, INCA hosted a capacity building workshop for Portuguese speaking (Lusophonic) countries: Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe, Timor-Leste and Portugal. These countries are currently developing or implementing projects for national tobacco control. Support and leadership for this project was obtained from different sources, including the Governments of Brazil and Portugal as well as from INCA.
In 2004, INCA, in partnership with Johns Hopkins of School of Public Health, hosted a workshop for countries of MERCOSUR, Bolivia and Chile to organize and integrate a tobacco control surveillance system and national plans for tobacco control as part of a Regional plan of Intergovernmental Commission on Tobacco Control – MERCOSUR, in order to establish or reinforce national teams and coordinator mechanisms for tobacco control.
In 2005 INCA and the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health´s Institute for Global Tobacco control agreed to establish a Center of Excelelence for Training. As an expansion of the Fogarty Internationl Center collaborative project, this Center will allow for additional workshops and training sessions on tobacco control and is expected to be a critical stepping stone for advancing tobacco control knowledge in Brazil and other Latin-American countries.
WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [up]
On November 3rd, 2005 Brazil deposited its instrument of ratification to the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) after almost one year of negotiations within the Brazilian National Congress.
The FCTC is the first public health treaty concluded under the auspices of WHO and it has quickly become one of the most rapidly embraced United Nations treaties. The Convention seeks to protect present and future generations from the devastating health, social, environmental and economic consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke by providing a framework for tobacco control measures.
The final text of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was approved on 1 March 2003. The Treaty was adopted by the fifty-sixth World Health Assembly in May 2003. It opened for signature and ratification a month later, on 16 June 2003. After only 17 months, on 29 November 2004, it had received 40 ratifications, acceptances or accessions, which triggered its entry into force on 27 February 2005. The first Tobacco Treaty Conference of the Parties (COP) has concluded on 17 February 2006, in Geneva.